Biotechnology Genetics Microbiology

The Effects of Gut Microbiota on Human Health!

gut bacteria contribute to keep us healthy

In our body, every single system is neither dependent nor independent but they are interdependent. This notion gives a hand to find out the connection between different systems of the body and the external environment. Literally, everything happened against a background of certain exclusive change. The unsteadiness in the external environment alternates the internal composition of the body.

Our internal body is fabricated of two interdependent systems i.e. our body parts and microbiome.  Therefore, a notable relationship between our body and the microorganism or gut microbiota that lives inside us exists.

What is Gut Microbiome?

The gut microbiome or gut microbiota is the set of all microbes that create a living ecosystem in our gut. It is estimated that the human gastrointestinal tract contains approx. 2 kg of the microbiota (trillions of microorganisms). These microbes belong to three domains of life: Microbes, Fungi, and Archaea.

We should never underestimate such a large population of microorganisms in our body. Gut microbes are the helpers in the activities of our body. They act as volunteers, playing a role in a variety of actions like secretion, excretion, vitamin production, and immune function. In fact, our gut microbiome influences every activity of the body.

Their relation with the body is noteworthy. Based on their relationship with our body the scientists bring forth the idea to study the effect of various activities on microbial diversity and its effect on our body. One such is an exercise that in turn has a positive impact on the health of the living organism?

The Gut Microbiota Composition and Development

Two bacterial phyla I-e Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes dominates the population of microbiota residing in our gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Recent studies show that our gut microbiome comprises of 1100-1500 species of bacteria and set of gene contain by these species are 150 times greater than that of the total human genome. The greater percentage were present in our large intestine where they aid in the process of fermentation.

Nevertheless, how this community of microbes developed? This is, in fact, a debatable topic. Some believe that microbiota development starts from the fetal stage but yet not sure. Albeit the development depends upon both the external and internal environment.

The function of the Intestinal Microbiome

Our health is dependent on the diversity of microbiota present in our body. They modulate the maintenance of the mobility of our GI tract. It clears the way for the homeostatic process. In addition, this fact is evident from the study of microbiota of obese and normal person.

According to a study done on the microbial community of obese and normal individual, a reverse in the ratio of the microbial community. The alterations in the gut microbiota have fatal consequences on the health and it leads to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The IDB is due to decrease in population Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes and an increase in the production of inflammation-causing bacteria I-e Proteobacteria.

Another important disorder in the queue is irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The IBS is a serious medical condition characterized by abdominal pain, discomfort, and change in the pattern of appetite. Studies show that in this condition the person microbiota has a double concentration of firmicutes as compared to Bacteroidetes. They also observed an increase in the amount of Dorea, Ruminococcus, and Clostridium spp.

Researchers are busy to dig out more importance of the gut microbiome to our health. Researchers around the globe show interest in exploring more knowledge about the presence of these microbes and their relation with the external and internal environment. New research came forward, which shows the positive impact of exercise on our gut microbiome and the influence of physical exercise on the taxonomic distribution and richness of microbiome.

 

Gut microbiota
Some of the actions influenced by Gut Microbiota  Source: Harvard

 

Co-relation of our Gut microbiota and our Health

According to a recent publication on this topic, exercise independently affect gut microbial community without any dietary modifications. Both animals and humans were test subjects in this study. They found that exercise enhances the formation of short-chain fatty acids SCFAs. These fatty acids have a direct role in reducing inflammation and hence maintain a healthier atmosphere for our gut microbiome.

In another study, a group of researchers designed a setup of six weak bicycle training program. In which every week there were three sessions. They enrolled 17 healthy women but they were not physically so active. Under the condition that they will not change, their routine diet during these sessions and degree of exercise performed by the participant will depend on participant maximum heartbeat rate.

After the completion of sessions, they analyzed the gut microbe of enrolled volunteers using 16S rRNA sequencing techniques. They found a surprising result. The volunteers who were enrolled in physical activity found a decrease in the presence of Proteobacteria in the gut, which is responsible for the inflammation of bacterial community directly.

Furthermore, there found a parabolic increase in the beneficial bacteria Akkermansia who were involved in physical activity. This bacterium has an influential role in better metabolism.

Additionally, scientists also observed a decrease in the activity of vascular adhesion protein 1 which researchers think that this factor has a role in inflammation in the vascular systems

The most mind-blasting effect observed was the change in the degree of functionality in the genes of gut microbiota, which probably a strong verdict for the correlations, Moreover the scientist claimed that the degree of influence in the gut microbiome depends upon the exercise duration. More the physical activity better would be the result. in short more the exercise, more would be the chances of living.

Video: Microbiome: Gut Bugs and You

How do Microbiome impact health and diseases?

Here are some examples of how the human microbiome impacts health and diseases:

  • modulation of bone-mass density
  • promotion of fat storage
  • promotion of angiogenesis
  • development and training of the immune system
  • biosynthesis of vitamins and amino-acids
  • resistance to pathogens
  • modification of the nervous system
  • modification of appetite regulation

Conclusion

The findings for the correlation have proved that exercise is one of the focal factors that affect the internal diversity of the microbes and in turn benefit the host.  Physical activity maintains the ratio of Bacteroidetes -firmicutes in a value that help to fight with obesity, unusual weight loss, the progression of diseases and many more health-related effects.

In fact, physical activity constrained the microbial community in a way that synthesizes stimulators that helps us to sort out the various problem of the gastrointestinal tract.in short physical activity on the daily act as a catalyst for the proper maintenance and functioning of the microbial community in our body.

Explore More: Is human psychology, driven by gut microbes?

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